THE DEVELOPMENT OF ULTRASONIC PROCESSING
Ultrasonic processing technology is an important branch of ultrasound. Ultrasonic processing technology is gradually developed along with the development of ultrasound science.
As early as 1830, F.Savrt used a multi-toothed gear to generate 2.4-104 Hz ultrasonic waves for the first time. In 1876, Carlton's air whistle experiment was produced. Ultrasonic frequency The rate reached 3-104HZ, and when it was changed to hydrogen, the frequency reached 8-104Hz. These experiments made people begin to have a certain understanding of the nature of ultrasound.
A major boost to the birth of ultrasound was the 1912 luxury passenger ship Titanic sank after colliding with icebergs in the first flight. This tragedy that shocked the world at that time prompted scientists to propose acoustic methods to detect icebergs. These activities inspired the intense study of German submarines during the First World War. In 1916, scientists led by the famous French physicist Lang Zhiwan began to study the generation and use of underwater ultrasound as a detection method. In 1918, the piezoelectric effect was found to make the quartz plate vibrate, making it useful as an ultrasound source. Quartz piezoelectric oscillator. This is the beginning of modern ultrasound.
In 1927, the American physicists Wood and Lumes made the earliest ultrasound processing experiments. They used strong ultrasonic vibration to sculpt and rapidly drill glass plates, but they were not used in industry at that time. In 1951, Cohen of the United States made the first practical ultra-professional processing machine and attracted widespread attention, laying the foundation for the development of ultrasonic machining technology. Japan was the country that studied ultrasonic processing technology earlier. In the 1950s, Japan had established a special vibration cutting research institute. Many universities and scientific research institutions also have this research topic. There are two main representatives in the Japanese study of ultrasonic machining: one is Professor Shimazaki Shimao of Central University, and his work is "Ultrasonic Engineering - Theory and Practice"; the other is Prof. Teichiro Iebetsu of Utsunomiya University. "Precise machining, vibration cutting basics and applications" is his masterpiece. Japanese researchers not only used ultrasonic processing on ordinary equipment, but also introduced ultrasonic vibration systems in precision machine tools and CNC machine tools. In 1977, Japan used ultrasonic vibration cutting and grinding for production, and it can bore boring holes for large marine diesel engine liners with a diameter of 600mm.
The former Soviet Union’s research on ultra-benefit processing was also relatively early. In the late 1950s and early 60s, valuable research papers have been published. In the ultrasonic turning, drilling, grinding, finishing, composite processing and other aspects have production applications, and achieved good economic results. In order to promote the application of ultrasonic processing, the former Soviet Union held a national seminar in 1973, fully affirming the economic effects and the use value of ultrasonic processing, and played an active role in the promotion and application of this new technology throughout the country. By the end of the 1980s, the Soviet Union had already produced a series of ultrasonic vibration drilling devices.
In the mid-1970s, the United States was in the production and application stage in the ultrasonic drilling center hole, finishing, grinding and pulling and welding. Ultrasonic turning, drilling and boring were in prototype stage of experimental production equipment. In 1979, the universal ultrasonic vibration cutting system has been applied in industrial applications.
Germany and the United Kingdom have also conducted extensive research on the mechanism and industrial applications of ultrasonic processing, and published many valuable papers, which have also been actively applied in production. For example, the United Kingdom proposed using sinter or The ultrasonic rotary machining method of the electroplated diamond tool overcomes the disadvantages of low processing speed and poor precision in the general ultrasonic machining of deep holes, and has achieved good results.
The research of ultrasonic processing technology in China began in the late 1950s and began the study of ultrasonic vibration turning in the late 1960s. In 1973, Shanghai Ultrasonic Electronic Instrument Factory successfully developed the CNM-2 ultrasonic grinder. In 1982, Shanghai Steel Pipe Factory, Institute of Acoustics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Shanghai Ultrasonic Instrument Factory successfully developed ultrasonic pipe-pulling equipment, filling the gap for the application of ultrasonic machining in metal plastics processing in China. In October 1983, the Science and Technology Department of the Ministry of Machinery and Electronics Industry entrusted the editorial department of the "Mechanical Technician" magazine to hold the first "Vibration Cutting Symposium" in Xi'an. The meeting fully affirmed the important role of vibration cutting in metal cutting. The exchange of research and application results has promoted the in-depth research and application of this new technology in China. In 1985, Guangxi University, Nanjing Film Machinery Factory and Nanjing Cutting Tools Factory jointly developed China's first "CZQ-250A" ultrasonic vibration cutting system. In the same year, the 11th Research Institute of the Ministry of Machinery and Electronic Industry successfully developed ultrasonic rotary processing machines, which were achieved in the drilling, nesting, end milling, internal and external circular grinding and thread processing of hard and brittle materials such as glass, ceramics, and YAG laser crystals. Good process effect. In 1987, the Beijing Institute of Electrical Machining Technology first proposed the ultrasonic, frequency-modulated EDM and ultrasonic compounding grinding and polishing processing technology. It was successfully applied to the grinding and polishing of polycrystalline diamond wire drawing dies. In 1989, China successfully developed an ultrasonic honing device. In 1991, it successfully developed a slender rod ultrasonic turning device with variable section.
From the end of the 20th century to the beginning of this century, ultrasonic processing technology in China has developed rapidly. There are more extensive researches in ultrasonic vibration systems, deep hole machining, wire drawing dies and cavity mold polishing and ultrasonic composite machining. It solves many key problems in the areas of difficult-to-machine materials such as diamond, ceramic, agate, jade, hardened steel, die steel, granite, marble, quartz, glass, and sintered permanent magnets, and has achieved good results.
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