Principles and characteristics of ultrasonic turning
The principle of ultrasonic turning
Ultrasonic vibration cutting is a special cutting technology that makes the tool vibrate along the cutting direction at a frequency of 20-40KHz. Ultrasonic vibration cutting is a kind of pulse cutting from a microscopic point of view. In a vibration cycle, the effective cutting time of the tool is very short. During most of the vibration cycle, the tool and the workpiece chip are completely separated, and the tool and the workpiece chip are in intermittent contact. , The cutting heat is greatly reduced, and there is no "give a knife" phenomenon in ordinary cutting. Using this kind of vibration cutting, precision machining can be performed on ordinary machine tools. The geometric tolerances such as roundness, cylindricity, flatness, parallelism, and straightness mainly depend on the accuracy of the machine tool spindle and guide rail, and the highest can reach close to zero error. It is possible to replace grinding by turning, reaming by drilling, and grinding by milling.
Features of Ultrasonic Turning
1. High processing accuracy;
2. The cutting temperature is low, and the workpiece is kept at room temperature;
3. No built-up tumor, small deformation of the workpiece, and no burrs;
4. Low roughness, which can be close to the theoretical roughness value;
5. The cutting force is small, about 1/3-1/10 of the cutting force of ordinary tools;
6. The "rigidization" of the processed parts, that is, compared with ordinary cutting, the rigidity of the workpiece is increased;
7. The processing process is stable and effectively eliminates chatter vibration;
8. The cooling of the cutting fluid improves the lubrication effect;
9. The tool durability is improved several times to several tens of times;
10. The surface of the workpiece is in a state of compressive stress, and the wear resistance and corrosion resistance are improved;
11. The surface of the workpiece after cutting shows a rainbow effect.