Principle and mechanical action of ultrasonic cell pulverizer
Ultrasound is an elastic mechanical wave in a material medium. It is a form of fluctuation, so it can be used to detect the physiological and pathological information of the human body, as well as diagnostic ultrasound. At the same time, it is a form of energy. When a certain dose of ultrasound is transmitted in the organism, the interaction between them can cause the function and structure of the organism to change, that is, the biological effect of ultrasound. The effects of ultrasound on cells are mainly thermal, cavitation and mechanical effects. The thermal effect is that when the ultrasound propagates in the medium, the frictional force hinders the molecular vibration caused by the ultrasound, which converts part of the energy into local hyperthermia (42-43℃), because the critical lethal temperature of normal tissue is 45.7℃, while that of tumor tissue Normal tissues are highly sensitive, so the metabolism of tumor cells is impaired at this temperature, and DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis are affected, thereby killing cancer cells while normal tissues are not affected. The cavitation effect is that vacuoles are formed in the organism under ultrasound irradiation, and mechanical shear pressure and turbulence are generated with the vibration of the vacuoles and their violent implosion, which causes the tumor to hemorrhage and the tissue to collapse and cause necrosis. In addition, instantaneous high temperature (about 5000°C) and high pressure (up to 500×104Pa) are generated when the cavitation bubble bursts, which can thermally dissociate water vapor to produce .OH radicals and .H atoms, which are composed of .OH radicals and .H. Redox reactions caused by atoms can lead to polymer degradation, enzyme inactivation, lipid peroxidation and cell killing. The mechanical effect is the primary effect of ultrasound. The alternating compression and expansion of the medium particles during the propagation of ultrasound constitutes a pressure change, which causes damage to the cell structure. The strength of the killing effect is closely related to the frequency and intensity of ultrasound.
The basic principle of ultrasonic cell pulverizer Ultrasonic cell pulverizer uses the dispersion effect of ultrasonic waves in the liquid to cause the liquid to produce cavitation, thereby breaking the solid particles or cell tissues in the liquid. The ultrasonic cell pulverizer is composed of an ultrasonic generator and a transducer. The ultrasonic generator transforms the mains electricity into 18-21KHz alternating electric energy to supply the transducer. The barium zirconate titanate piezoelectric vibrator is the heart of the transducer. It stretches and elastically deforms with the alternating voltage at a frequency of 18-21KHz, and the transducer vibrates longitudinally. The vibration wave generates a cavitation effect through the titanium alloy horn immersed in the biological solution, which excites the biological particles in the medium to vibrate violently.