Ultrasonic Frequency.Ultrasonic welding sensors are designed for different systems and applications, ranging from 15 to 300 kHz.Most metal welding systems are in 20 to 40khz, 20 kHz is the most common frequency.
Vibration amplitude.The vibration amplitude of the welding head is directly related to the energy conveying to the weld.The amplitude of ultrasonic vibration is very small at the welding seams - 10,30, or 50 microns, rarely exceeding 100 microns (about 0.004 inches).In some welding systems, the amplitude is a dependent variable;In other words, it has to do with the power applied to the system.In other systems, the amplitude is an independent variable that can be set and controlled by the feedback control system on the power supply.
Static force.When the welding vibration starts, the force exerted on the workpiece by the welding head and anvil produces an intimate contact between the opposite surfaces.The size of the force, depending on the material and thickness, and the size of the weld, could range from tens of thousands of tons to thousands of newtons.For example, a 40 mm2 weld is produced in the 6, 000 series of aluminum, with a force of 1, 500 N, while the 10 mm2 welding on a soft copper sheet of 0.5mm thick may require only 400n.
Electricity, energy and time.Although individual welding parameters, power, energy and time are the best checks, they are closely related.When soldering, the voltage and current from the power supply will cause the power to flow to the transducer during the welding cycle.The energy delivered is the area under the welding power curve.Most welding power sources are rated at the peak power they can provide, ranging from a few hundred watts to a few kilowatts.Most welding time is less than one second.Based on the constant power output, the 0.4 second welding of 2-kw welder will produce 800 joules of energy.
Materials.This includes a wide range of questions and parameters related to ultrasonic metal welding.The first is the combination of materials or materials.The combination of most materials and materials is considered to be solderable to some extent, although specific welding parameters and performance data are generally lacking.The properties of materials, including modulus, yield strength and hardness, are an important consideration.
Generally speaking, soft alloys such as aluminum, copper, nickel, magnesium, gold, silver and platinum are most easily welded on ultrasonic waves.Harder alloys, such as titanium, iron and steel, and nickel-based aviation alloys and refractory metals (molybdenum and tungsten) are more difficult.
Material surface characteristics are another parameter, including surface treatment, oxide, coating and contaminants.
Geometry.The shape of the welding parts plays an important role, the leading factor is the thickness of the parts.In general, thin parts have a better chance of achieving successful ultrasonic welding.Increasing the thickness of the parts, especially the part of the contact welding head, requires greater welding head area, greater static force and higher welding force.The maximum available thickness will depend on the available power of the material and the welding power source.
Tool.The tooling is composed of ultrasound/welding head and anvil, used to support components and transmit ultrasonic energy and static.In most cases, tooltips are processed into a complete sonotrode componen, but in some cases a removable tooltip is used.Mold contact surfaces usually have grooves and trench or other surface roughness to improve workpiece fixtures.
The welding head and anvil contact surface are usually flat, and the welding head is designed to have a slightly convex curvature to change the contact stress.
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